|Figure 1: New Zealand (courtesy of Wikipedia)|
|Figure 2: New Zealand (courtesy of the CIA Factbook)|
|Figure 3: The Haast's eagle and|
its prey, the Moa
(courtesy of Wikipedia)
2.1 EthnicityAbout 71% of the New Zealand population is white (compared to 92% for Australia, 80% for the U.S., 87% for the U.K.), 14.1% is Maori (compared to <1% of the Australian population being Aboriginal), 11.3% is Asian (compared to 7% in Australia) and 7.6% is Pacific Islander.1-4
|Figure 4: Symbols|
|Figure 5: Medsafe's logo|
The names they use for drugs are usually the International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), which are generic names set forth by the World Health Organization (WHO). Australia uses Australian Approved Names (AANs), the U.K. uses British Approved Names (BANs). AANs are what BANs used to be in 1999, mostly, because of the fact that they were last systematically updated in 1999.8,9
|Figure 6: The University of Otago, |
NZ's oldest university (courtesy of Wikipedia)
3. Miscellaneous other facts
|Figure 7: Mt. Cook |
(courtesy of Wikipedia)
|Figure 8: Metamfetamine|
The chief class of drugs used illicitly there are amfetamines (most probably metamfetamine), according to the CIA Factbook (for Australia it is mostly cocaine and amfetamines, for the U.S. it's pretty much every illicit drug and for the U.K. it's a major consumer of heroin (especially from South East Asia), cocaine and producer of some synthetic drugs).1-4
|Figure 9: Heroin|
|Figure 10: Cocaine|
There's three drugs that make me jealous of New Zealanders as they're not marketed in Australia, or the U.S. for that matter; nefopam (Acupan), nabiximols (Sativex) and levomepromazine (Nozinan). They're also available in the U.K., amongst other countries.
4. Therapeutic drugs
|Figure 11: Nefopam|
|Figure 12: The Leucine Transporter, a type of SERT|
|Figure 13: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, M3|
Nefopam has been in clinical use since the 1960s and produces pain relief that's said to be similar to that of intermediate-strength opioids (narcotic painkillers) like tramadol (when it's by itself it goes by the brand names: Durotram, Tradonal, Tramahexal, Tramal, Tramedo, Zydol; when in combination with paracetamol it's called Zaldiar in Australia), pentazocine (Talwin; not used in Australia) and hydrocodone (called Zohydro when it's by itself; Anexsia, Hycet, Lorcet, Norco, Vicodin, Xodol, Zamicet in combination with paracetamol, only available in North America), although some studies suggest it's significantly weaker and more akin to aspirin in strength.15 Nefopam is also used to treat shivering and intractable hiccups after surgery.16-18 It seems like as though it mediates its action on shivering by means of its effects on serotonin.16 It has also been used, successfully two I might mention, to treat chronic, persistent hiccups (which is a rare condition, but it can be quite distressing as it can make it difficult to sleep and hold a conversation).19
|Figure 14: Nabiximol's chief active constituents|
|Figure 15: Levomepromazine|
- "NEW ZEALAND". The World Factbook. The Central Intelligence Agency. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- ^ "AUSTRALIA". The World Factbook. The Central Intelligence Agency. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- ^ "UNITED STATES". The World Factbook. The Central Intelligence Agency. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- ^ "UNITED KINGDOM". The World Factbook. The Central Intelligence Agency. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "2013 Census Usually Resident Population Counts". Statistics New Zealand. New Zealand Government. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2013 (provisional)" (PDF). Statistics New Zealand. New Zealand Government. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Pharmacist Prescribing – Protocol Driven" (PDF). Pharmacy Guild of Australia. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Therapeutic Goods Administration (July 1999). "TGA Approved Terminology for Medicines – July 1999" (PDF). Department of Health and Ageing. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Medsafe (3 May 2013). "International Non-proprietary Names (INN)". The Ministry of Health. Commonwealth of New Zealand. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Table 1: Human Development Index and its components". United Nations Development Programme. The United Nations. 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Heel, RC; Brogden, RN; Pakes, GE; Speight, TM; Avery, GS (April 1980). "Nefopam: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy.". Drugs 19 (4): 249–67. doi:10.2165/00003495-198019040-00001. PMID 6991238.
- Leuner, K; Kazanski, V; Müller, M; Essin, K; Henke, B; Gollasch, M; Harteneck, C; Müller, WE (December 2007). "Hyperforin--a key constituent of St. John's wort specifically activates TRPC6 channels.". FASEB Journal 21 (14): 4101–11. doi:10.1096/fj.07-8110com. PMID 17666455.
- Therapeutic Goods Administration (July 2013). "POISONS STANDARD 2013". Department of Health and Ageing. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Kim, KH; Abdi, S (April 2014). "Rediscovery of Nefopam for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain." (PDF). The Korean Journal of Pain 27 (2): 103–111. PMC 3990817. PMID 24748937.
- Evans, MS; Lysakowski, C; Tramèr, MR (November 2008). "Nefopam for the prevention of postoperative pain: quantitative systematic review." (PDF). British Journal of Anaesthesia 101 (5): 610–7. doi:10.1093/bja/aen267. PMID 18796441.
- Alfonsi, P (2001). "Postanaesthetic shivering: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and approaches to prevention and management.". Drugs 61 (15): 2193–205. doi:10.2165/00003495-200161150-00004. PMID 11772130.
- Park, SM; Mangat, HS; Berger, K; Rosengart, AJ (November 2012). "Efficacy spectrum of antishivering medications: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.". Critical Care Medicine 40 (11): 3070–82. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825b931e. PMID 22890247.
- Bilotta, F; Pietropaoli, P; Rosa, G (November 2001). "Nefopam for refractory postoperative hiccups.". Anesthesia and Analgesia 93 (5): 1358–60. doi:10.1097/00000539-200111000-00066. PMID 11682430.
- Bilotta, F (24 February 2007). "Nefopam for chronic persistent hiccups". British Medical Journal. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Tanasescu, R; Constantinescu, CS (September 2013). "Pharmacokinetic evaluation of nabiximols for the treatment of multiple sclerosis pain.". Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 9 (9): 1219–28. doi:10.1517/17425255.2013.795542. PMID 23621668.
- Slof, J; Gras, A (August 2012). "Sativex® in multiple sclerosis spasticity: a cost-effectiveness model." (PDF). Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research 12 (4): 439–41. doi:10.1586/erp.12.40. PMID 22681512.
- Guidelines & Protocols Advisory Committee (30 September 2011). "Palliative Care for the Patient with Incurable Cancer or Advanced Disease Part 2: Pain and Symptom Management" (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Health. BRITISH COLUMBIA MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Control of pain in adults with cancer A national clinical guideline" (PDF). Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. National Health Service. November 2008. pp. 64–67. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Guidelines on Pain Management & Palliative Care" (PDF). UroWeb. European Association of Urology. 2013. p. 88. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- "Levomepromazine in Palliative Care" (PDF). Palliative Care Guidelines. National Health Service. August 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
- Joint Formulary Committee (2013). British National Formulary (BNF) (65 ed.). London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 23–24,230. ISBN 978-0-85711-084-8.
- Darvill, E; Dorman, S; Perkins, P (April 2013). "Levomepromazine for nausea and vomiting in palliative care." (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4: CD009420. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009420.pub2. PMID 23633372.
- Sivaraman, P; Rattehalli, RD; Jayaram, MB (October 2010). "Levomepromazine for schizophrenia." (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): CD007779. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007779.pub2. PMID 20927765.